Type casting is used to specify the type of a variable. Type casting is also the process of converting a variable from one data type to another. Sometimes, you may want to explicitly define the data type of a variable, and type casting comes in handy. As Python is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language, it has built-in classes to define the data type of variables. You can use the constructor functions of these classes for type casting, which can help you convert a variable from one data type to another.
Let’s look at these functions with examples:
1. str() function
This function is used to create a string. If we use this on an integer or float value, that will also be converted to a string
Suppose we want to create a variable S which will be a string:
S = str("This is a String") print(S) print(type(S)) Output: This is a String <class 'str'>
So, here str() function is used to construct a string.
strg = str(2) print(strg ) print(type(strg)) Output: 2 <class 'str'>
Here, str(2) creating a string like : ‘2’, as you can see the class of strg is string.
x = str(3.2) print(x) print(type(x)) Output: 3.2 <class 'str'>
1. int() function
This function is used to create an integer value.
a = int(1) print(a) Output: 1
If we use this function on float value, everything after the point will be eliminated.
b = int(6.99999) print(b) Output: 6
If we want to apply int() function on string value, the string need to be a string of numbers.
c = int('3') d = int('30000000') print(c) print(d) Output: 3 30000000
3. float() function
This function is used to create a float value.
f = float(1.1) Output: 1.1
If we apply this function on an integer value, it will be converted to a float value by adding an extra .0 after the main value
f1 = float(1) Output: 1.0
If we want to apply float() function on string value, the string need to be a string of numbers.
f2 = float('2') Output: 2.0